|Overview||Textbooks and References||Ten-year series, OSCEs, Tests|
[Lecture Notes(topical), Cases(20), Quiz]
Links and Directories
Past Year Questions|
[By presentation(CPC style) or by diagnosis]
For NUS Students Only:
|Obstetrics & Gynae||Orthopaedics||Paediatrics||Pathology||Pharmacology||Physiology||Psycho Med||Radiology||Surgery|
|Main Page||Medic Index||EMail Pooh|
Pathology, contrary to popular belief, is not about dead bodies and murder mysteries.
That subspeciality is known as Forensic Pathology, and together with Chemical Pathology, General Pathology,
and Systemic Pathology, make up your Pathology curriculum.|
Pathology starts with General and Systemic patho lectures and tutorials in the preclinical years, building upon your knowledge of "normal" Anatomy and Physiology. However, it can be very confusing without the clinical experience of later years.
Year 3 see a near-total neglect of Patho, apart from Combined-Pathoclinical-Conferences, which are case studies involving the clinicians, pathologists, and radiologists. Chem Path and Forensic Path are taught in Year 4.
The final exam is taken only at the end of fourth year. Naturally much of the year 2 work will be forgotten, however, clinical work during year 3 and 4 will help you in your revision as well as lend focus to the important topics.
Official syllabus available?: Yes- Issued at start of course|
Four main sections:
A. General (Basic) Pathology [20% of final exam]
B. Systemic Pathology [50%]
C. Forensic Pathology [15%]
D. Chemical Pathology [15%]
General and Systemic Patho subdivisions:
2. Gross specimens (Pots)
3. Histopathology (Slides)
General Patho Modules & [Weightage of Past Essays]:
1. General Concepts of Diseases 
2. Cardiovascular 
3. Inflammatory and Repair Processes 
4. Infections 
5. Immunological Diseases 
6. Abnormalities of Growth and Differentiation 
7. Neoplasia 
Systemic Patho Modules & [Weightage of Past Essays]:
1. Cardiovascular 
2. Respiratory 
3. Gastrointestinal 
4. Hepatobiliary 
5. Pancreas (+ Diabetes)
6. Lymphohaemopoeitic system 
7. Renal System 
8. Male gential system 
9. Breast 
10. Female genital system 
11. Paediatric Patho 
12. Endocrine 
13. Skin 
14. Bones/Joints/Soft Tissue 
15. Central Nervous System 
Forensic Pathology [1 out of 6 Essay Qns]:
1. Death certification, Coroner's Cases
2. Medico-legal examination of the living & dead
3. Sudden & unexpected death
4. Offenses against the person (trauma)
5. Asphyxial deaths, drowning.
6. Traffic accidents
7. Abortion, child abuse
8. Sexual offenses (DNA, Rape)
9. Dangerous drugs
11. Misc (Lightning)
Chemical Pathology [1 out of 6 Essay Qns]:
1. Acid-base disorders
2. Sodium disorders
3. Potassium disorders 
4. Renal function
5. Liver function
6. Diabetes Mellitus 
7. Diagnostic Enzymology 
8. Paraproteinaemias 
9. Calcium disorders 
10. Lipid disorders 
11. Tumour markers 
12. Dynamic Endocrine Testing
13. Thyroid disorders 
14. Adrenal disorders 
16. Metabolic bone disorders
Breakdown of marks|
- No official breakdown
- Year 2 class tests: 20-30%
- Year 4 CA (case writeups): 5-10%
- Final exam: 50-70%
- 12th April 2000 - Essay
- 13th - Practical
- 18th - Viva
- 20th - Board of examiners
- 1 Essay Paper (Answer all 6 questions)(3 hours)
- 1 practical (Pots, Pictures, Slides)(2 hours)
- NO mcq paper
- Viva only for pass/fail or distinction.
- Essay paper: Out of 6 questions:
1 general path, 3 systemic, 1 forensic, 1 chem path.
- Practical: 2/3 pots, 1/3 slides.
Primary textbook (choose 1)|
this is easy to read with nice pictures (unlike Baby), yet not too intimidating (like Papa).
to outdated information and typos.
and is mainly useful for weightlifting exercise, as it is rather verbose. Some have finished reading it though!
Other must-have stuff
visit the patho lab towards the end, or pick one of the links to a histopath site above.
this 800 page book is packed full with words and lists, making it a poor choice as your first or primary textbook.
Revision guides & MCQs
Book review sites
paragraphs from a clinical text, and only for the major topics.
2)Build upon Physio, Histo and Biochem.
"If you don't know what is normal, how can you tell what is abnormal?"
3)Concentrate on the generalities and major topics.
With knowledge of normal histology, and basic patho concepts, you can diagnose most patho slides!
In patho, there's a very gentle gradation from undergrad to postgrad level, so it's easy to "overstudy".
Be aware of this pitfall, and leave out minor topics (see your syllabus), and the fine print of major ones.
Intro, Definition, Egs, Epidemiology, Aetiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation,
Morphology, Histology, Stage/Grade(for cancer), Complications/Natural History/Prognosis.
During Clinical Years
the gross morphology/histopath aspects of clinical topics you come across.
1)Forensic & Chem Path lectures
2)Patho short posting
totally confusing in year 2 suddenly becomes so easy to understand.
like verbal diarrhoea. Use this in system path: ie. myocarditis/pancreatitis/x-itis => inflammation diarrhoea.
No mcqs, so that's one big relief! Chuck all those small facts and details! :)
Essay paper is 6 questions over 3 hours (ie. 30mins per question)
pure recall/regurgitation (Eg. "Discuss the pathology of myocardial infarction")
The approach is roughly the same as the diagnosis in (1) is rarely a problem.
notes and regurgitating it out, with whatever slant the question requires.
systemic path questions involving multiple systems.
Practical paper(2 hours)(? 30 questions)
|Past Year Exams|
April 2000 Pro|
National University of Singapore
Second Professional Part III for MBBS
Class of 2001
Breakdown of marks (in 2000)
(1)Continual Assessment - 20%
(1.3)Short posting writeup
(2)Essay paper - 60%
(2.2)1 chemical patho
(2.3)1 forensic patho
(3)OSCE - 20%
[breakdown differs in different years]
Essay Paper (12 April 2000)
1. Describe the pathogenesis and pathological features of the diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori.
2. Describe the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and the subsequent complications that may arise.
3. What is oedema? Describe the pathogenesis of oedema in: a)cardiac failure b)liver cirrhosis c)acute inflammation
4. Write short notes on the following: a)primary pulmonary tuberculosis b)small cell carcinoma of the lung c)cor pulmonale
5. A 58-year old man was reviewed at the medical outpatient clinic with a long history of renal impairment. Review the role of the clinical biochemistry laboratory in the management of this patient.
6. Discuss how you would distinguish the differences in the appearance of homicidal, suicidal and defensive wounds. What are the features that can help you determine if the wound is self inflicted or otherwise.
OSCE (13 April 2000)
20 stations, 5 minutes each.
15 pots/pictures of pots.
[breakdown may differ between years]
[Slide]Secondary carcinoma of lymph node (NPC Squamous cell)
[Slide]Chronic gastric ulcer
[Slide]Basal cell carcinoma
[Pot]Aortic aneurysm with background atherosclerosis
[Pot]Ovarian teratoma (mature)
[Pot]Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland
[Pot]Prostatic hyperplasia + bladder enlargement + bilat hydroureter & hydronephrosis
[Picture of Pot]Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis
[Picture of Pot]Pulmonary thromboembolism
[Picture of Pot]Ductal carcinoma of breast with Paget's
[Picture of Pot]Colon cancer with polyposis syndrome
2000 Supplementary/Re Exams|
National University of Singapore
Second Professional Part III for MBBS
Class of 2001
Essay Paper (Reexam 2000)
1. Give an accont of the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and possible seequalae of infective endocarditis.
2. Discuss the major mechanisms involved in immunologic tissue injury, and illustrate by describing the pathology of one disease.
3. A 40-year-old woman presents with a thyroid nodule. Discuss the pathology of the common conditions with a view to correlating the clinical presentation, gross and microscopic appearances and approach to management.
4. Write short notes on the following:
(a) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
(b) secondary hyperparathyroidism
(c) giant cell tumour of bone
5. A 44-year old woman was referred to the outpatient department with a history of generalized pruritus and was noted to be jaundiced. Discuss the role of the clinical biochemistry laboratory in the diagnostics evaluation of this patient.
6. What are the features that would lead you to suspect that a child has been abused. How would you proceed to examine and confirm your suspicion? What would you do when suspicion is confirmed?