Anatomy May 2000 Pro Essay Paper (By Pooh)
National University of Singapore
Faculty of Medicine
First Professional Examination for the degrees of M.B.,B.S.
Human Structure and Development (Anatomy)
Date: Tuesday, 2nd May 2000
Time: 9am - 10.30am
Short Essay Questions
Answer all questions
1. A middle-aged lady with 'numbness' in the right hand is diagnosed as having a carpal tunnel syndrome.
a) What are the boundaries and contents of the carpal tunnel? (50%)
b) What nerve may be vulnerable to compression within the tunnel and what could be the manifestaions in the hand? (50%)
2. A rear seat passenger in a car has suffered a posterior dislocation of the left hip joint following a road traffic accident. Following treatment the patient has regained normal function.
a)Describe the factors that help maintain stability at the hip join. (50%)
b) WHat are the normal movements of the hip joint and which are the muscles responsible? (50%)
3. A patient is to undergo repair of her atrial septal defect (hole in the interatrial septum) through the right atrial chamber.
a) What are the normal internal features of the right atrium? (50%)
b) Describe the normal development of the interatrial septum and the basis for the defect. (50%)
4. A 42 year-old-male undergoes partial gastrectomy (removal of part of the stomach) for an ulcer on the posterior wall of the stomach. He had undergone previous vagotomy (division of the vagus nerves) for the ulcer without and improvement.
a) What important structures lie posterior to the stomach? (40%)
b) Briefly describe the arterial supply to the stomach. (40%)
c) What is the physiological effect of the loss of vagal innervation to the stomach? (20%)
5. A rectal examination reveals a tumour which requires resection (surgical removal) of the rectum.
a) What structures are related to the rectum in the male? (40%)
b) Give an account of the arterial supply and venous drainage of the rectum (40%)
c) What are the normal microscopic features of the rectal mucosa? (20%)
6. During a total thyroidectomy (removal of the thyroid gland) two of the parathyroid glands could not be found in the normal location.
a) What important relations of the thyroid gland must be noted in order to carry out a safe and complete removal of the gland? (70%)
b) Describe the normal development of the parathyroid glands and explain the basis for abnormal locations. (30%)